In: L’Europe des citoyens et la citoyenneté européenne. Évolutions, limites et perspectives, edited by Michel Catala, Stanislas Jeannesson, Anne-Sophie Lamblin-Gourdin, 69-87. Bern: Peter Lang, 2016.
In this chapter, I show that the project of European citizenship progressed alongside German security problems and the German project for a European foreign policy or a European defence. I show how citizenship on the one hand and common foreign and defence policy are linked: foreign policy presupposes a popular cohesion; it is even more so in the case of a common defence. The civic link can only be strong if the entity responsible for foreign policy and defence ensures citizens rights that improve their condition. These rights are of two types. This is first the right to assert claims in political life. Individuals cannot develop loyalty to the European Union if they lose that right by leaving the territory of their State. Second, it is a right of access to assistance. Collective solidarity is the necessary counterpart to the military obligations of the citizen. Of these two types of rights, however, as I show, European citizenship is partial. The voting and eligibility rights are limited to local or European elections and the access to assistance requires demonstrating sufficient resources so that in practice it is of little use.